It's another of those phrases frequently used and almost universally endorsed but not much talked about in terms of implementation. What does facilitating discussion mean? How should a teacher do it? Two faculty researchers, Finn and Schrodt (2016), frame the problem this way: “The literature is replete with descriptive accounts and anecdotal evidence but lacks the kinds of empirical investigations that could create theoretical coherency in this body of work” (p. 446). They decided our understanding of discussion facilitation could be deepened with an operational definition, one that resides in an instrument to measure it quantitatively.
Beyond developing and validating the instrument, they wondered what learning-related outcomes does discussion facilitation accomplish. Does it generate student interest and motivate learning? Can discussion promote those behaviors that reflect interest and involvement in learning across courses and in activities outside the classroom?
Developing the instrument was the first task. To do so they used literature on discussion to generate an initial pool of 75 items. Three hundred and sixty undergraduates were asked to use those items to rate the discussion facilitation skills of the instructor they had in the course that met prior to the class in which the data were collected. Analysis of their responses revealed five factors involved in effective discussion facilitation.
As part of exploring the relationship between discussion facilitation and student interest and engagement, the researchers used a “student perceptions of instructor understanding” scale. It measures the extent to which students think instructors understand or misunderstand them, such as with, “My teacher understands the questions I ask.” The second study documented that “when instructors provoke and organize discussions using a variety of questions, employ responses that affirm students, and correct discussions to focus on course content, such behaviors are directly associated with student interest and engagement in the course, as well as indirectly predictive of both outcomes through perceived understanding” (p. 459).
Not only is this instrument of value to subsequent explorations of discussion facilitation, it is a great tool for instructors who wish to understand the specific components of effective discussion facilitation. And for those interested in feedback on the extent to which they are effectively facilitating discussion, items on the final 25-item version of the instrument are included in the article. Kudos to these researchers for developing an instrument with both empirical and pragmatic utility. Best of all, it offers a clear description of how a teacher facilitates a discussion.
Reference: Finn, A. N., & Schrodt, P. (2016). Teacher discussion facilitation: A new measure and its associations with students' perceived understanding, interest and engagement. Communication Education, 65(4), 445–462.